Pioneer plants

Pioneer trees and shrubs are natures way of preparing a site for the growth of a forest. They are verry tolerant trees, withstanding frost, wind and poor soils. They are usually short lived, and when shade increases they die back, making space for more permanent plants.

Pioneers for us
Alder, alnus glutinosa Willows, salix species
Willow leaved buckthorn, hippophea salicifolia Elder, sambucus nigra
Gorse, ulex europaeus Tree lupin, lupinus arboreus